Technical articles
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Consider moving to fixed valves.  Fixed valves offer better reliability, fouling resistance and more robust valve designs.  
CEP (, May 2016.

Debottlenecking a refinery fuel gas absorber. A low-cost and effective tower revamp increased capacity while maintaining H2S in the product well below specification. 
PTQ (, Revamps 2010.

Factors influencing vapor crossflow channeling. AIChE Fall Meeting,
November 2001.
Improved stripper efficiency raises upgrader production. Revamping a heavy oil upgrader's steam stripping tower increased tray efficiency and achieved record throughput.PTQ (, Q2 2016.
Improving crude vacuum unit performance When simulating or designing an unconventional heavy oil/bitumen vacuum crude unit, the sharing of operating data can help ensure designers make the right design choices. PTQ (, Q3 2008.
NEW! Raise the Game. Selecting the appropriate tower internals to achieve desired process performance is critical in both new towers and revamps of existing columns. State-of-the-art high-performance internals offer high capacity and efficiency compared to conventional mass transfer equipment. Hydrocarbon Engineering, December 2017.
Revamp & retune describes the installation of 6-pass trays in a large C3 splitter. Hydrocarbon Engineering, July 2009.

Tray revamp for demethanizer ethane recovery. As a first step in an ethane extraction plant's operational improvement plan, a tray revamp was performed to improve both tray efficiency and ethane recovery. PTQ (
Revamps 2011.


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Benefit of revamping a main fractionator. Additional FCCU capacity can often achieved by implementing new packing and distributor designs, even if the main fractionator has already been revamped. Some of the factors to be considered in evaluating a revamp are presented.
PTQ (, Winter 2005.

Energy savings in crude vacuum towers via structured packing. Structured packing is considered the state-of-the-art mass transfer internal to maximize capacity and gas oil recovery in crude vacuum towers by minimizing column pressure drop. AIChE Spring 2003 National Meeting.

Improving packed tower performance. Innovations have increased the capacity and efficiency of towers packed with structured packing. Hydrocarbon Engineering, July 2006.

Minimize the risk of fire during column maintenance.  Understand the causes of fires and how to prevent them in distillation columns equipped with structured packing.  
CEP ( September 2003.

Packed FCCU Main Fractionator Upgrades for Performance and Reliability.. Since the first FCCU Main Fractionator was packed there have been significant technology improvements in both process performance and reliability. New packing and distributor designs offer greater capacity or improved efficiency. NPRA Annual Meeting 2004.

Packed for optimal performance. Ways in which the microscopic and macroscopic geometric variables of structured packing can be used to design a packing with the desired efficiency and capacity. Hydrocarbon Engineering, April 2013.


Mass Transfer
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A 100 Year Search for the "Ideal" Mass Transfer Device A review of mass transfer design over the past 100 years concludes that there is no single ideal mass transfer device for all applications. There is, however, an ideal device for every application. A presentation by Christoph Ender and Izak Nieuwoudt. AIChE Spring 2013, San Antonio, Texas.

Separations technology
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Debottlenecking an FCC Gas Concentration Unit - Component trapping by physical carry-over of water can cause capacity bottlenecks that are not easily predicted by performing process simulations and hydraulic rating of internals. Koch-Glitsch worked closely with Essar Oil to troubleshoot the unit and provide a solution that would meet Essar’s capacity goal.
PTQ ( Q3 2017.

A Study of Separation - Using high-capacity mist eliminators to debottleneck separators in fertilizer production.
World Fertilizer ( May/June 2017.

Rethink your liquid-liquid separations - a fresh look investigates general principles in designing process coalescers. Hydrocarbon Processing,
June 2009, pgs 53-60.

Laser-based instrument measures mist eliminator carryover.  This paper
describes the Phase Doppler Particle Analyser (PDPA) and how it works, provides data to indicate its accuracy,
and presents representative pilot plant
and field test data obtained with the PDPA.

Analysis and Troubleshooting
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Clean diesel project. A process review, including the improvement of atmospheric and vacuum distillation columns, for the reformulation of the diesel pool. PTQ (, Q1 2011.

Consider the 'inside-out' approach to optimize distillation operations. Economic value can be obtained by involving heat exchanger and tower internal experts in the initial design development. Hydrocarbon Processing, August 2006.

Customized tower design. To save project costs, the distillation towers for a new refinery were designed to meet process design objectives using best available technology. PTQ (, Q2 2013.

Improving performance through low-cost modification of tower internals. Using CFD analysis to model the behavious of certain tower internals under revamp conditions is crucial in setting an optimal design. Low-cost revamps of tower internals improve production from existing assets with a payback period of less than a year.
PTQ (, Q2 2010.

Reliability vs recovery for delayed coking fractionators. When selecting tower internals, numerous choices are available for coker main fractionator configurations, each offering benefits and trade-offs. Some of these choices are discussed along with insight into the internals features that can be provided in any coker fractionator.
PTQ (, Q2 2009. 

Take a hands-on approach to refinery troubleshooting. Troubleshooting is not an exact science. But the solution to a process problem may be found by going into the plant and carrying out tests and evaluating data.
CEP (, June 2002.